2- Are Catholics supposed to shake hands during the sign of peace?
vatican.va.- General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 82: "As for the sign of peace to be given, the manner is to be established by Conferences of Bishops in accordance with the culture and customs of the peoples. It is, however, appropriate that each person offer the sign of peace only to those who are nearest and in a sober manner."
As for the sign of peace, you are not required to render it in any particular form. The bishops conference has the authority to establish a particular sign as the official form of the rite in the US, but have never done so, leaving the unofficial custom of the handshake in place. You are certainly free to bow to your neighbor and wish him peace, instead, or some other gesture.
3- Do Catholics have to go to Confession first before they receive Holy Communion?
ewtn.com- Both the theology of the Church and her law oblige Confession ONLY when there is mortal sin.
4- How long must a Catholic fast before Holy Communion? Are there any exceptions?
ewtn.com- One who is to receive the Most Holy Eucharist is to abstain from any food or drink, with the exception only of water and medicine, for at least the period of one hour before Holy Communion. Those who are advanced in age or who suffer from any infirmity, as well as those who take care of them, can receive the Most Holy Eucharist even if they have taken something during the previous hour.
5- Does chewing gum and eating candies, breath mints, lozenges break the fast before Holy Communion?
ewtn.com- Chewing gum does not break the fast, but it is disrespectful of the Sacred Liturgy and once the juice is swallowed the fast is broken. In addition to breakfast, lunch and dinner, candies, breath mints, lozenges and anything that is put into the mouth to be dissolved or chewed meets these conditions once the dissolved contents are swallowed.
6- Can Non-Catholic Christians be admitted to sacramental communion in the Roman Catholic Church?
14- Why must we kneel on our knees during Mass without leaning back on the pew? Are there any exceptions?
catholic.org- Respect for the Eucharist demands that we kneel on our knees without leaning back on the pew. If you are ill or disabled, it is acceptable to sit instead of kneeling.
15- Is it considered a sin if we do not go to Mass?
scborromeo.org- The Sunday Eucharist is the foundation and confirmation of all Christian practice. For this reason the faithful are obliged to participate in the Eucharist on days of obligation, unless excused for a serious reason (for example, illness, the care of infants) or dispensed by their own pastor. Those who deliberately fail in this obligation commit a grave sin (CCC 2181).
16- Do I commit a mortal sin if I do not attend Mass on Holy Days of obligation?
catholichome.webs.com- Yes. On Holy Days of obligation Catholics are obliged to go to Mass as on Sundays. The Holy Days of obligation which fall on days other than Sunday are Christmas, New Years, The Immaculate Conception (Dec. 8) the Ascension Thursday (though many Bishops have transferred it to Sunday), the Assumption of Mary into heaven (Aug. 15).
Given how precious the Mass is plus the Old Testament precedent which was rightly adapted by the Church, the Code of Canon Law (#1246) proscribes, "Sunday is the day on which the paschal mystery is celebrated in light of the apostolic tradition and is to be observed as the foremost holy day of obligation in the universal Church." Moreover, "On Sundays and other holy days of obligation, the faithful are bound to participate in the Mass..." (#1247). Therefore, the Catechism teaches, "Those who deliberately fail in this obligation commit grave sin" (#2181), and grave sin is indeed mortal sin. Recently, our Holy Father, Pope John Paul II, repeated this precept in his apostolic letter Dies Domini (Observing and Celebrating the Day of the Lord, #47, 1998).
Are there any other questions that you can think of that I could add to this list?
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